The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 18, 1971. It remains the largest land claims settlement in United States history. ANCSA was intended to resolve long-standing issues surrounding aboriginal land claims in Alaska, as well as to stimulate economic development throughout Alaska.

The settlement established Alaska Native claims to the land by transferring title to almost 44 million acres of land within Alaska to over 200 local and regional corporations. ANCSA remains a work in process as Congress has made numerous modifications to ANCSA within the years after 1971. ANCSA is codified at 43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.

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